The spin waves are the waves of oscillating magnetic moments – spins, which can be intuitively considered as elementary magnets coupled each other and forming the magnetic material. Their wavelengths are a few orders smaller than the wavelength of electromagnetic waves of the same frequency, which makes the operations on spin waves easer in nanoscale. Moreover,the propagation of spin waves depends not only on the geometry of the nanostructure abut also on the equilibrium of magnetic moments which can take a form of the spin nanotexture.  

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The elastic waves (acoustic waves), which we can hear, have macroscopic wavelengths, measured in the tens of centimeters. However, this elastic excitation can be dragged into the nanoscale when their frequencies are raised into the range of gigahertzes. The elastic waves of high frequency can be processed in the nanodevices, basing on typical wave phenomena as interference or refraction. The variety of forms of the elastic waves results from the interplay between the anisotropy of elastic properties of the medium and the directional character of mechanical oscillations.

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The electromagnetic waves have a frequency spectrum as broad as the spectrum of their applications: from radio waves, used in terrestrial communication, to x-rays, used in the studies of atomic structures. The photonics focused on the electromagnetic waves being the visible or near-infrared light. Recent progress in the development of artificial structures called metamaterials, patterned with the fine resolution below the wavelength of scattered waves, has led to the observation of unusual wave effects that do not occur in natural materials. We are working on the planar tunable photonic metamaterials – metasurfaces which enable high-efficiency nanophotonics devices. 

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